niamh bellingham


Unit 3 LO 3.1

Week 8, 9, 10 – Hallo Project

Communication Report

For my hallo project I have chosen to use the communication method of Video. I feel as if this is the best type of method I can use because it can use audio and video at the same time. I am able to use the audio of people saying hello and use the visuals of them saying hello to help portray my idea and meaning. If I was to use radio I would not be able to use have the video and this would take away a lot of the meaning because you don’t see who is saying hello and where they are. Also in this project the only dialogue you can use is the word ‘hello’ and if I used radio all it would be is someone saying hello and you wouldn’t understand why.  I also do not think print would be a good method to use because you wouldn’t be able to have the audio of someone saying ‘hello’ and it would just be a picture and you wouldn’t understand the story as much.


Locations I will be using –

  • The onion in Broadstairs
  • Different locations in my friends house: the garden, the kitchen, bedroom
  • Out side my friends campervan
  • Asda car park

Equipment I will be using –

  • Cannon 600D camera
  • Tripod
  • Clapper board

Each location will have a different person there, but every person will be in the same sort of position, a mid shot of them saying hello. I will also be filming them performing an activity.

So when I film Billy he will be flipping a pancake, as we are already filming in a kitchen we will be able to use things in it. We will make the pancake batter before filming. Also with filing Fraser out side his caravan, I am going to have him drinking a hot drink from his favourite mug, and we will make the hot drink before filming. I will be filming Ethan in a ASDA car park, I will film it after the shop closes so there wont be many people around, but it will be dark because the shop closes at 10pm so I will have to use some lights. I will try and use a 3 point lighting system, have two lights on each side of the camera, to do this I will have to make sure I have another person to help operate the lights.

Evaluation of research

I felt my research was helpful because it helped me because it gave me an idea of what I need to do before doing more complicated shots. With filming Ethan at the ASDA car we found a spot where the was some light coming from the shop windows so we used that as lighting and I had two people each side of the camera using phone flashes as lighting, because I was not able to get actual led lights. I also felt that my research helped me be more organised in the scenes where I had to prepare things in advance.

Production Diary

Sunday – I went back to Arthur and Billy’s and met Alice there. Then filmed Alice saying hello and stroking Arthur and Billy’s dog Myrtle. I had Arthur and Emily to help with lighting. I did not have a tripod at this time so that is why the footage is slightly unstable but that was the only problem.

Monday – I went to college to collect my equipment and then went to Arthur and Billy’s house and filmed him out side in his back garden saying hello and smoking a cigarette, Emily helped me doing the clapper board. All the filming went well.

Tuesday – In the evening I travelled to ASDA with Ethan, Arthur and Billy, to film Ethan’s part. We waited till ASDA was closed and then I chose the spot I wanted to film in. Then I filmed Ethan saying hello and skating round a bit. I had Arthur and Billy to help me with the lighting. Most of the filming went well except for the first couple of takes because Ethan kept adding in other words other than hello.

Wednesday – I got to Arthur and Billy’s house and we made the pancake batter before filming and he practiced flipping. Then I filmed him saying hello, flipping a pancake and eating a pancake. All this filming went well except for some shots being out of focus.

Thursday – I travelled to the onion and filmed Emily there saying hello and dancing around. Filming for this was quick and didn’t take long, only problem we had was that it is a public place and we had to stop filing some times because of the public walking past. Then I went to Frasers house and we made the hot drink he would be using when filming and then filmed him standing out side his camper van saying hello and drinking his drink, the filming for this was also quite quick, one problem we did have though is because it was filmed outside there was noises of birds in the back ground.

Peer reviews

Arthur: I think that you did a very good job with how professional you tried to make the filming, with all the lighting and specific positioning of us all and whatnot, and I liked how you got us all to do something that was linked to us, like I smoked, billy made pancakes etc.

Billy: It was better than I thought it was going to be but you need how to focus a camera because you always seem to get that bit wrong. I like the way you edited it and the song choice, and I like the bit where you had the video of me eating the pancake and stopped the music.

Ethan: I thought it was than expected, the editing was pretty good and I liked how I was edited. One thing I didn’t like was how the order of people saying hello wasn’t the same order as the second part of people just doing stuff.

Critical Perspective Report

In my hallo project I focused a lot on Mise-en-scene and Semiology. Mise-en-scene being everything that is the scene, so the location and background, the arrangement of props and where people are standing in the scene.  And Semiology being the study of meaning, and what things mean, and things being decoded by the reader.

In my hallo project I focused on mise-en-scene because all the shots are in different locations with different things in them, and the actors are all different. These locations all contain different things. The shot of billy in the kitchen there is of food and kitchen utensils showing that it is a kitchen, and this shot of Emily at the onion dancing around, you can see grass, bush, a bench and a pathway, showing that the scene is out side, and you can see the onion sculpture around her showing she is the onion.

I also looked at semiology within my hallo project. At the start I have ‘Hello friend’ on the screen showing the person watching it that this project must be about friends. Then I have 6 different people saying hello, like they are saying hello to someone. Then I have them all doing something that relates to them as a person. Fraser drinks a lot of hot drinks,  so I had him sipping a hot drink, billy always makes pancakes for breakfast so I had him flipping a pancakes and eating one. It shows the audience what kind of people they all are how they are all different.

Contextuality Report

When we first got told about the project we had to and the brief for the project I automatically thought of my friends. They are a big part of my life and I thought they would be really good for this project. I thought that simply showing them as the people they are would be the best way to show them.

One things that effected my project was my lack of time. I had just over a week to film but if I had longer I would have been able to have more of my friends in my production. Some of my friends were not able to fit in to my time table and that’s why I was not able to put them into my production,  and I would have probably made my production longer and have my friends doing more activities.

As I am a college student a budget was something I didn’t really have. If I had a big budget I could have had them in lots of different locations not just in the towns that we live in. I could have used better more expensive equipment, and had more people to help me with the production.

My Hallo Project



My hallo project is about my friends, and showing how different they all are. In the production I have 6 of my closest friends and they all say hello at the start then I have different shots of them doing actives that I felt showed them well for who they are, and how different they all are.


  • I like the music I used because it is about friendship
  • The editing went better than expected
  • I felt it showed all my friends well
  • It was fun to make
  • Showed different shot types


  • Some shots were out of focus
  • Could have used a microphone
  • There is background noise in some of the shots
  • Could have had more of my friends in it and made it longer
  • A couple of the shots were shaky because I didn’t have a tripod

I managed to do most of what I put in my proposal and concept. I described in my concept how I wanted to have them saying hello and them doing something else at the location they were at. I did change some of the location and planned to have more people than I did actually have in the end because of time restrains. I did plan to use a microphone but in the end I didn’t actually use one.

If I could adapt the work I produced I would make all the shots that are out of focus are in focus. I would also have used a microphone to make the audio better. I could have also filmed more footage of them doing things they like to show more of there personality.

I do feel like the final work was appropriate for the target audience of younger people/teenagers. I got good feedback from my peers and teenagers I showed my project to.

I do feel like it covered all 4 units well. I showed my different skills with camera skills and my framing skills in my production. I also covered the research and planning when researching and planning my production. Maybe not as much with the jobs unit but I did experience being a director. I also covered semiology and mise-en-scene  with the meaning and story behind why I made my production.

My production went a lot better than I thought it would. In the start I didn’t really have any idea of how I wanted to edit and how I wanted it to turn out. And I managed to find a nice song to play in the background, the song is about friendship and how important it is.

The feedback from my tutors was mainly good. They did obliviously point out that some shots were out of focus and that I should work on that, but they mention how they liked the different shots I used. They also said they likes how I had them all saying hello then after showing them doing thing so you get to know them each more. One thing when I done my first rough edit was that I should make the music quieter at the start when they are all saying hello so you can hear they saying hello better.

If I was to do this task again I would definitely try and add more of my friends in, and make it longer and add more clips of my friends doing there activity’s. I would also maybe add a shot of all my friends together somewhere, I feel like this would be nice to show everyone together. I would use a microphone next time to make the sound better quality and prevent back ground noise.  Also would make sure that all my shots are in focus while on location so if they are I can reshoot them, because I only realised that they are out of focus when I got the editing.





Week 7: Unit 3: Working Practices

Free lance –

pros and cons

self employed-

pros and cons

employed by a company-

pros and cons

Time line of my career

Week 6: Slating and Lighting


Slating is a thing that happens when filming. Before the director says action he says sounds ready, camera ready, sound roll, roll camera and then usually slate it and someone comes on screen with a clapper board. Slating is primarily used to sync the audio and video up in the editing process, because you can sync up the sound of the clapper board and the video of it. It is also used to help the editors know where abouts in the film they are because it shows on the clapper board the scene and take.


Task 1

For this task we had to go in groups and show different types of slating. We showed a two head slates from different angles, tail slate and MOS. A head slate is when you use the clapper board at the start of the scene before the director says action, a tail slate is when you use the clapper board at the end and you show this by holding it upside down, and mos is using the clapper at the start but MOS is written on it which means no sound is going to be recorded.

In our group we had a director, someone operating the camera, someone recording the sound with a separate microphone, someone coming on screen using the clapper board and someone behind them to make it look more like a scene.

The first time we done this task it did not go very well. Our group was not as organised as we could have been, and we were disrupted because some of our group had to leave so we were not able to complete the task correctly. We repeated the task and were more organised. We also made sure we organised our files correctly because the first time we done it, we deleted the wrong audio files.

We had to sync the audio on to the footage using Avid

Task  2

In groups we experimented with different types of lighting based on 3 point lighting. In our group we had 4 different roles that we swapped round. There was the subject which was the person who sat in the middle who we shone the light on. The director who decided where the light was going to be placed. The camera operator who took the pictures. The light operator who was in charge of the positioning the light, and someone holding the reflector.


The first picture is very blue, we used a dark blue and light yellow gel and placing light to the side of Reece to create the shadows and used the reflector on the other side of the light. The second picture of me was the same set up but with using  a gel, just a white diffuser so the light looks softer. In the third picture the light is still to the side of the subject and we used a reflector with the gold side, and a yellow gel on the light and we didn’t have the light turned up as strong. The bottom picture of Chantel the light was placed behind her and the reflector to the side, creating some shadow on her face and an outline. The last picture of Joe the light was placed quite near to him and then the refactor on the other side but no diffuser was used.




Week 5: Editing

Introduction to editing on Avid

Firstly make yourself a folder of your name in new volume so you know where all  your work will be and to keep organised. Then in that folder make a folder with the name of the project, and in that folder make 3 folders called edit, audio and video. You put your audio recordings in the audio folder and video footage in the video folder. Then open Avid.



When you open up avid you will see this screen


You need to press this button

Make sure your Edit folder is selected from your folder in New volume.

Then press new project.

After pressing new project this should come up


Name your project and make sure the format is 25p PAL and the aspect ratio is set at 16:9 then press okay.

Then press okay, then this screen comes up.


Press ‘new bin’ and make 3 bins and call one ‘edit’ one ‘audio’ and one ‘video’ so then it should look like this.


Then right click in the audio and video bins and import your files.

When all you files are imported you can start to edit them.

Select the video you want to edit first and press the small icon that looks likes a bit of film and it will come up on the first screen. Watch the video through and mark out the part y0u want using the in and out points, you use these by pressing I and O on the key board at the place you want the edit.

When you are happy with the selected footage you have you can press either V or B, to insert it into the time line. Carry this on unit you have all your desired clips on your timeline. If you wish to delete a clip you just select the clip on the time line. 15102265_545462918985593_340339290_o

You may want to put audio or a song on your clip if your videos don’t already have audio on your footage. Import all your audio to your audio bin, select the one you want to put in, you may need to create a new bar to put the audio in.


For my first time editing I feel like this went okay. I didn’t really use any transitions but I was able to add audio in.





Week 4: Unit 3: Skills: Camera Man

How to become a cameraman:

To become a camera man the best way is to go to university. You could do a course o photography because that could lead to being a cameraman. After this you could get a apprenticeship or internship. Alternatively you could go into free lance work.

Famous Camera Man:

Emmanuel Lubezki cinematographer from Mexico. He started his career in Mexico in the late 1880s, and his first international production was the independent film Twenty Bucks (1993). Lubezki studied film and the National Autonomous University of Mexico, along with film maker Alfonso Cuarón.

The two have been friends since they were teenagers and have worked on 6 motion pictures. Including Great Expectations (1989), Gravity (2013) and Children of Men (2006) witch revived universal acclaim for his camera use.
He’s been nominated for 8 Academy Award for Best Cinematographer. Winning three for The Revenant (2015), Gravity (2013) and Birdman or The Unexpected Virtue of Ignorance (2014)

Different Jobs:

  • Camera Assistant – They make sure everything is running smooth, make sure the battery’s are charged and all the equipment is working right. They will know the script, so they know what cameras are needed in witch scenes.
  • Camera Operator (Camera Man) – They operate the equipment on set, like the cameras and drones.
  • Cinematographer/Director of Cinematography –  They control where the cameras go and what cameras to use. They design camera plans, and decide what to do with the cameras.

Auteur Theory

‘Auteur’ originates from France, it translates as ‘Author’. The theory was introduced in the 1950s by French film directors. The Auteur Theory states that the director is considered the ‘Author’ of the movie. Its considered that the director puts as much work in to the film they are making as an author who is writing a book.  All directors have there certain style they direct with and they are the leader of the team making the film, like the lighting, sound, camera, editing, actors,  and they tent to work with people who have a similar style.

Emmanuel Lubezki Biography (no date) Available at: (Accessed: 15th October)

Stacey (2011) Auteur Theory Available at: (Accessed: 18th October)

The Editors Of Encyclopaedia Britannica  (2016) Auteur Theory Available at: (Accessed: 18th October)


Week 4: Unit 1

180 Degree Rule

The 180 degree rule is a rule that film makers use. The rule is if there are two characters in the scene, the camera should stay on the left or right of them, and only goes 180 degrees of either side it is on. Its like there is an invisible axis in the middle of them. If you pass over the invisible axis its called ‘called crossing the’. When you cross the line its seen to be confusing and disorienting for the audience.

Over the Shoulder Shot

An over the shoulder shot is framed from a behind a person who is looking at a person, so like the camera is just behind there shoulder. You focus more on the person in front of the shoulder so its like looking them from the other persons point of view.

Shot reverse Shot

Shot reverse shot also uses 180 degree rule and sometimes an over the shoulder shot. Its a classic Hollywood technique. It is used when two people are having a conversation, there is two shots, one of each person and it switches between them when they are having the convocation so you can view both people.

Image 1


Image 2


Image 3


Image 4


Image 5


For this we had to go out in groups of 4 and take pictures. In these pictures we had to show that we understood the 180 degree rule, the over the shoulder shot and shot reverse shot. All the shots show the 180 degree rule because they all stay on the one side of the two girls.   Image 1 shows an over the shoulder shot as you  can see the first girls shoulder and then the other girl in front of her, showing the are having some sort of conversation. Then image 1,2, 3 and 4 show shot reverse shot because they go between each girl showing each of them.

Marcelo Pailo De Souza (2011) Film Studies: 180° Degree Rule Available at: (Accessed 17 October)

Shot reverse shot (no date) Available at: (Accessed 17 October)

Over the Shoulder Shot (OSS) (no date) Available at:


Week 3: Unit 3: Skills: Sound/Foley Engineer

How to become a Sound/Foley Engineer:

To become a sound engineer you need to get work experience, and like lighting you usually get it in theater. This gives you good experience with lights and builds up your knowledge base. It also looks good on your CV, then you can go on and get an internship or an apprenticeship.

The other option to become a lighting engineer can be to go to uni. At uni you can do a sound degree. Going to uni is a good experience and it can help you gain connections, they build you skills up and teach you everything you need to know to become a sound engineer. It also shows employers a good level of education and that you really know what you are doing. Then after uni you could get a internship/apprenticeship or work freelance.

When becoming a Foley Engineer you need to become a sound engineer first because you need the skills of a lighting engineer to be a Foley Engineer.  Foley is a specialism in sound engineering. They best option is to go to uni and do a sound engineering degree and then specialise  in Foley, some people just go strait into Foley because its what they want to do, some do both and some work in the industry for years and never work with Foley sound.

Different sound jobs:

  • Sound Assistant
  • Sound Engineer
  • Sound Designer
  • Sound Mixer
  • Foley Engineer/Designer

Famous Sound Engineer/Designer:

Mark A. Mangini has worked on over 130 films and TV shows in his sound design career, inducing many Disney films like the lion king and Aladdin, Star trek and Scooby-Do. Hes been nominated for many awards, and in 2015 he won the Oscar for Sound Editing with the film Mad Max, shared with David White.

Mark was born in Boston and dropped out of college at the age of 19 to persue his career in film. His first job was a cartoon sound editor. Then went on to own his own Post Production Sound Company  for 25 years (Weddington Productions Inc), and  his studio is part of the Formosa Group, in Hollywood. He now is a Governor of  Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences representing the Sound Branch.

University Sound Engenieer Courses:

Sound Engineering & Design at Bolton University

Sound Arts and Design at the University of the Arts London

(No date) Available at: (Accessed on: 7th October)

Week 3: Unit 1: Sound

Task 1

Different Types of Microphones

Dynamic Microphone: They are very versatile and good for general use. They use a simple design. They are strong and resilient to rough handling. They are better for loud sound/voices, such as musical instruments.


Condenser or capacitor microphone: This microphone requires power from batteries or an external source, and the audio signal is stronger from this microphone is stronger than a dynamic microphone. Its a lot more sensitive than a dynamic microphone, so it is not suitable for recording loud noise because it can distort the sound.


Polar Patterns

A polar pattern is the area around a microphone that will pick up audio. There is different shapes, every microphone has one and they have different uses. On some microphone you can change the polar patterns.

Omnidirectional: Picks up audio well in all directions. Used for recording ambient sound, recording more that one person talking/singing at one time.

Cardioid: Is a heart shaped polar pattern, they pick up sound within 120 degrees of the direction they are pointing in and pick up little sound from the side and back.

For this task we had to go out and record ambient sounds around the college in 4 different places, two outside and two inside, using two different polar patterns in the 4 different places.


I found this task quite interesting because you don’t actually realise all the different noises around you until you really listen. If i was to perform this task again i would probably just improve the way i labeled each sound because i got confused when listening to the recordings.

Task 2

Foley sound is sound added onto a film post production, its sound that hasn’t been picked up or is not loud enough when they have recorded it. Its sounds such as walking, running, glass smashing and fighting noises.

For the second task we walked around the college and had to make Foley sounds:

  • Foot steps
  • Horse hooves
  • Rain
  • Human voice
  • Running water
  • Space ship
  • Fire (our own choice)


I really enjoyed this task, i found it very interesting how you can make the sounds effects of things just using other objects that are around. I do feel like my group did rush this task slightly and if we were to repeat this i would have tried to slow down and think more about the sounds we were making.







Week 2: Unit 3: Skills: Lighting Engineer

What a Lighting engineer does: 

A lighting engineer doesn’t just control the lights they design the lighting setup. The lighting design is how the lights look in the scene or film. The lighting design is shown on a story board witch they show for each scene, and it shows where each light will be and where the light will be going. They maintain the lights, set them up and take them down to the agreed lighting design and also repair them.

How to become a lighting engineer: 

Luck is important but not much because to be a lighting engineer you need to learn an actual practical skill. Work experience is vital, it shows that you have worked in the industry and that you are a hard worker, an you usually get this in theaters. The last most important thing to do is to go to uni. You would usually take a film production course and then specialise  in lights. There you will learn about all the practical skills needed to be a lighting engineer. It also proves a good level of education which employers will like, and at uni you can network and get contacts you will can use in the future.

After uni you can ether become an intern, get an apprenticeship or work as free lance. An internship is where you work for a company for free, but it looks very  good on your CV because you are working in the industry and shows you are determined. A job could come from an internship but not always.

Alternatively you could get an apprenticeship, which is where you are working for a company and also getting paid but you also learn on the job. This also looks good on your cv and is good because you’re basically getting paid to learn.

One other thing you could do is to go free lance. This is where you are self employed and you are hired by companies, in this case to work with lighting. It is most common way to work when you are a lighting engineer. You have to be very flexible, because a job could be for 6 days or 6 months.


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