niamh bellingham


Unit 1 LO 1.1

Week 6: Slating and Lighting


Slating is a thing that happens when filming. Before the director says action he says sounds ready, camera ready, sound roll, roll camera and then usually slate it and someone comes on screen with a clapper board. Slating is primarily used to sync the audio and video up in the editing process, because you can sync up the sound of the clapper board and the video of it. It is also used to help the editors know where abouts in the film they are because it shows on the clapper board the scene and take.


Task 1

For this task we had to go in groups and show different types of slating. We showed a two head slates from different angles, tail slate and MOS. A head slate is when you use the clapper board at the start of the scene before the director says action, a tail slate is when you use the clapper board at the end and you show this by holding it upside down, and mos is using the clapper at the start but MOS is written on it which means no sound is going to be recorded.

In our group we had a director, someone operating the camera, someone recording the sound with a separate microphone, someone coming on screen using the clapper board and someone behind them to make it look more like a scene.

The first time we done this task it did not go very well. Our group was not as organised as we could have been, and we were disrupted because some of our group had to leave so we were not able to complete the task correctly. We repeated the task and were more organised. We also made sure we organised our files correctly because the first time we done it, we deleted the wrong audio files.

We had to sync the audio on to the footage using Avid

Task  2

In groups we experimented with different types of lighting based on 3 point lighting. In our group we had 4 different roles that we swapped round. There was the subject which was the person who sat in the middle who we shone the light on. The director who decided where the light was going to be placed. The camera operator who took the pictures. The light operator who was in charge of the positioning the light, and someone holding the reflector.


The first picture is very blue, we used a dark blue and light yellow gel and placing light to the side of Reece to create the shadows and used the reflector on the other side of the light. The second picture of me was the same set up but with using  a gel, just a white diffuser so the light looks softer. In the third picture the light is still to the side of the subject and we used a reflector with the gold side, and a yellow gel on the light and we didn’t have the light turned up as strong. The bottom picture of Chantel the light was placed behind her and the reflector to the side, creating some shadow on her face and an outline. The last picture of Joe the light was placed quite near to him and then the refactor on the other side but no diffuser was used.





Week 5: Editing

Introduction to editing on Avid

Firstly make yourself a folder of your name in new volume so you know where all  your work will be and to keep organised. Then in that folder make a folder with the name of the project, and in that folder make 3 folders called edit, audio and video. You put your audio recordings in the audio folder and video footage in the video folder. Then open Avid.



When you open up avid you will see this screen


You need to press this button

Make sure your Edit folder is selected from your folder in New volume.

Then press new project.

After pressing new project this should come up


Name your project and make sure the format is 25p PAL and the aspect ratio is set at 16:9 then press okay.

Then press okay, then this screen comes up.


Press ‘new bin’ and make 3 bins and call one ‘edit’ one ‘audio’ and one ‘video’ so then it should look like this.


Then right click in the audio and video bins and import your files.

When all you files are imported you can start to edit them.

Select the video you want to edit first and press the small icon that looks likes a bit of film and it will come up on the first screen. Watch the video through and mark out the part y0u want using the in and out points, you use these by pressing I and O on the key board at the place you want the edit.

When you are happy with the selected footage you have you can press either V or B, to insert it into the time line. Carry this on unit you have all your desired clips on your timeline. If you wish to delete a clip you just select the clip on the time line. 15102265_545462918985593_340339290_o

You may want to put audio or a song on your clip if your videos don’t already have audio on your footage. Import all your audio to your audio bin, select the one you want to put in, you may need to create a new bar to put the audio in.


For my first time editing I feel like this went okay. I didn’t really use any transitions but I was able to add audio in.





Week 4: Unit 1

180 Degree Rule

The 180 degree rule is a rule that film makers use. The rule is if there are two characters in the scene, the camera should stay on the left or right of them, and only goes 180 degrees of either side it is on. Its like there is an invisible axis in the middle of them. If you pass over the invisible axis its called ‘called crossing the’. When you cross the line its seen to be confusing and disorienting for the audience.

Over the Shoulder Shot

An over the shoulder shot is framed from a behind a person who is looking at a person, so like the camera is just behind there shoulder. You focus more on the person in front of the shoulder so its like looking them from the other persons point of view.

Shot reverse Shot

Shot reverse shot also uses 180 degree rule and sometimes an over the shoulder shot. Its a classic Hollywood technique. It is used when two people are having a conversation, there is two shots, one of each person and it switches between them when they are having the convocation so you can view both people.

Image 1


Image 2


Image 3


Image 4


Image 5


For this we had to go out in groups of 4 and take pictures. In these pictures we had to show that we understood the 180 degree rule, the over the shoulder shot and shot reverse shot. All the shots show the 180 degree rule because they all stay on the one side of the two girls.   Image 1 shows an over the shoulder shot as you  can see the first girls shoulder and then the other girl in front of her, showing the are having some sort of conversation. Then image 1,2, 3 and 4 show shot reverse shot because they go between each girl showing each of them.

Marcelo Pailo De Souza (2011) Film Studies: 180° Degree Rule Available at: (Accessed 17 October)

Shot reverse shot (no date) Available at: (Accessed 17 October)

Over the Shoulder Shot (OSS) (no date) Available at:


Week 3: Unit 1: Sound

Task 1

Different Types of Microphones

Dynamic Microphone: They are very versatile and good for general use. They use a simple design. They are strong and resilient to rough handling. They are better for loud sound/voices, such as musical instruments.


Condenser or capacitor microphone: This microphone requires power from batteries or an external source, and the audio signal is stronger from this microphone is stronger than a dynamic microphone. Its a lot more sensitive than a dynamic microphone, so it is not suitable for recording loud noise because it can distort the sound.


Polar Patterns

A polar pattern is the area around a microphone that will pick up audio. There is different shapes, every microphone has one and they have different uses. On some microphone you can change the polar patterns.

Omnidirectional: Picks up audio well in all directions. Used for recording ambient sound, recording more that one person talking/singing at one time.

Cardioid: Is a heart shaped polar pattern, they pick up sound within 120 degrees of the direction they are pointing in and pick up little sound from the side and back.

For this task we had to go out and record ambient sounds around the college in 4 different places, two outside and two inside, using two different polar patterns in the 4 different places.


I found this task quite interesting because you don’t actually realise all the different noises around you until you really listen. If i was to perform this task again i would probably just improve the way i labeled each sound because i got confused when listening to the recordings.

Task 2

Foley sound is sound added onto a film post production, its sound that hasn’t been picked up or is not loud enough when they have recorded it. Its sounds such as walking, running, glass smashing and fighting noises.

For the second task we walked around the college and had to make Foley sounds:

  • Foot steps
  • Horse hooves
  • Rain
  • Human voice
  • Running water
  • Space ship
  • Fire (our own choice)


I really enjoyed this task, i found it very interesting how you can make the sounds effects of things just using other objects that are around. I do feel like my group did rush this task slightly and if we were to repeat this i would have tried to slow down and think more about the sounds we were making.







Week 2: Unit 1: Lighting

White Balance and Colour Temperature

Whit balance is when you remove any colours in a picture/video that are unrealistic, making the photo/video seem more realistic and natural looking. Without the correct white balance the picture will look a weird unnatural tone of colour and not very realistic. Colour temperature is measured in ‘kelvins’, its basically that different light sources emit different colours. Inside is tungsten light witch is more of a yellow/orangery colour, and is mainly lamps and artificial light, out side light is day light and that has more of  a blue colour and is mainly from the sun witch is outside.

Three poin lighting

Three point lighting is a very common lighting. It is three lights in a triangle shape around a subject. The 3 lights are the key light, fill light and back light. They key light points at the subject, and this is the brightest light. Then the fill light witch is sofer, ot some times just a reflector and is placed on the oppisite side of the fill light, this is to fill in the shadows. Then there is a back light and this is placed at the back of the subject to sperate them from the back drop and create depth.

Task 1

For this task we had to find three locations in college and take 6 different photos using the different white balance settings on the camera. The first location we used was inside the college but placed a chair by a window so we had both inside and out side light. The second location we used was in the media corridor witch was just inside lighting, then we went out side and look pictures of a sculpture witch was all outside light.









 Day light


 Auto White Balance



Task 2

For this task we got showed how to use reflectors. They used three colours, gold, silver and white. We took 3 different pictures using each colour putting the reflectors in different positions. One from above, one from the side and one from the bottom.









Geoff Lawrence Color Temperture (no date)

Week 1 Unit 1: Framing and Composition

Task 1

In this task we learnt about the different types of framing used in film. We learnt the names and abbreviations for the shots. We had to go in groups of 4 and take pictures of someone around the college using all the different types of framing to show we understood them.

High Angled Shot HAS

A shot taken from high up looking down on the person or thing.


Extreme Close Up ECU

Shows extreme detail, used usually for specific things because it is to close to show emotions or reactions, except really in quite dramatic shots.


Close Up CU

A close up is usually of someones face, they are useful for showing details, it shows there emotion and draws the viewer in.  Its a very important shot.


Medium Close Up MCU

This shot is in the middle of close up and mid shot, its shows the persons face and shoulders, can be used to show emotion with out getting very close.


Mid Shot MSA

A mid shot shows the top half of someones body, it doesnt really show much emotion, but you can see someones body language easier. It is also used to deliver information.


Medium Long Shot MLS

Shows the top half of the persons body and some of there legs. Its in the middle of mid shot and long shot, good for showing some movement and body language.


Long Shot LS

This shot shows the entire person form head to toe, its a good shot to use if you want to show what someone is doing of where they are.


Low Angled Shot LAS

A low angled shot shows the person from the bottom, giving an impression that they are important or more powerful.


Dutch Angle DA

A Dutch angle is a shot in which the camera angle is deliberately slanted to one side. This can be used for dramatic effect and helps portray unease and disorientation


Task 2

In this task we learnt about the different types of composition techniques. We had to find pictures of the different types of composition used in films.

The Rule of Thirds








Leading lines

leading lines.jpg

RiseDarthVader (2013)



Twilight In-Depth Film Analysis (Part 2 of 4) (Greg Miller 2012)

Natural Framing

natural framing.jpg

Ghostofthenight (2011)


zed-2-179_resize.jpg (2008)

Task 3

For this task we had to go around college and take our own pictures. We used the composition techniques: rule of thirds,  leading lines, depth, natural framing and symmetry.

Rule of thirds








Leading Lines









CDDIRECTOR (2011) Rule of thirds in Film: Learn how applying the “rule of thirds” will drastically improve your images. (accessed 21st September 2016)


RiseDarthVader (2013) Analysis of what makes good cinematography (accessed 21st September 2016)


Greg Miller (2012) Twilight In-Depth Film Analysis (Part 2 of 4) (accessed 21st September 2016)


Ghostofthenight (2011) Natural Frame of Grand Canyon (accessed 21st September 2016)

Shot Types (no date)  (accessed on 24th September)

Ian Freer (2016) Film Studies 101: The 30 Camera Shots Every Film Fan Needs To Know (Accessed on: 24th September)



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